New Insights into Developmental Neurotoxicants and the Vulnerable Male Brain – Geier

PPT Slides:

The prevalence of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs), including autism spectrum disorder, attention‑deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorder, obsessive‑compulsive disorder, and emotional disturbances, has increased notably in the past few decades with increased widespread exposure to and bioaccumulation of chemical neurotoxicants. One consistent aspect of NDs is the male preponderance. This presentation will consider the issue of male preponderance by reviewing the gender‑specific neurotoxic effects of recognized neurotoxicant chemicals to assess their possible etiology in NDs. This presentation will also examine newly emerging evidence as to why male brains are more sensitive than female brains, including: (1) greater glutathione availability in females; (2) greater sulfate‑based detoxification capacity in females; (3) potentiating effects of co‑exposure to neurotoxicants and testosterone; (4) greater neuroinflammatory response in males; (5) reduced vulnerability to oxidative stress in females; and (6) neuroprotective effects of female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), especially in the reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress.
Mark R Geier, MD, PhD, FACE
David A Geier